the data subject has given explicit consent to the processing of those personal data for one or more specified purposes, except where Union or Member State law provide that the prohibition referred to in paragraph 1 may not be lifted by the data subject;
processing is necessary for the purposes of carrying out the obligations and exercising specific rights of the controller or of the data subject in the field of employment and social security and social protection law in so far as it is authorised by Union or Member State law or a collective agreement pursuant to Member State law providing for appropriate safeguards for the fundamental rights and the interests of the data subject;
processing relates to personal data which are manifestly made public by the data subject;
processing is necessary for the purposes of preventive or occupational medicine, for the assessment of the working capacity of the employee, medical diagnosis, the provision of health or social care or treatment or the management of health or social care systems and services on the basis of Union or Member State law or pursuant to contract with a health professional and subject to the conditions and safeguards referred to in paragraph 3;
processing is necessary for reasons of public interest in the area of public health, such as protecting against serious cross-border threats to health or ensuring high standards of quality and safety of health care and of medicinal products or medical devices, on the basis of Union or Member State law which provides for suitable and specific measures to safeguard the rights and freedoms of the data subject, in particular professional secrecy;
The processing of personal data for purposes other than those for which the personal data were initially collected should be allowed only where the processing is compatible with the purposes for which the personal data were initially collected. In such a case, no legal basis separate from that which allowed the collection of the personal data is required. If the processing is necessary for the performance of a task carried out in the public interest or in the exercise of official authority vested in the controller, Union or Member State law may determine and specify the tasks and purposes for which the further processing should be regarded as compatible and lawful. Further processing for archiving purposes in the public interest, scientific or historical research purposes or statistical purposes should be considered to be compatible lawful processing operations. The legal basis provided by Union or Member State law for the processing of personal data may also provide a legal basis for further processing. In order to ascertain whether a purpose of further processing is compatible with the purpose for which the personal data are initially collected, the controller, after having met all the requirements for the lawfulness of the original processing, should take into account, inter alia: any link between those purposes and the purposes of the intended further processing; the context in which the personal data have been collected, in particular the reasonable expectations of data subjects based on their relationship with the controller as to their further use; the nature of the personal data; the consequences of the intended further processing for data subjects; and the existence of appropriate safeguards in both the original and intended further processing operations.
Where the data subject has given consent or the processing is based on Union or Member State law which constitutes a necessary and proportionate measure in a democratic society to safeguard, in particular, important objectives of general public interest, the controller should be allowed to further process the personal data irrespective of the compatibility of the purposes. In any case, the application of the principles set out in this Regulation and in particular the information of the data subject on those other purposes and on his or her rights including the right to object, should be ensured. Indicating possible criminal acts or threats to public security by the controller and transmitting the relevant personal data in individual cases or in several cases relating to the same criminal act or threats to public security to a competent authority should be regarded as being in the legitimate interest pursued by the controller. However, such transmission in the legitimate interest of the controller or further processing of personal data should be prohibited if the processing is not compatible with a legal, professional or other binding obligation of secrecy.
Infringements of the following provisions shall, in accordance with paragraph 2, be subject to administrative fines up to 20 000 000 EUR, or in the case of an undertaking, up to 4 % of the total worldwide annual turnover of the preceding financial year, whichever is higher:
By derogation from Article 9 (1) of Regulation (EU) 2016/679, the processing of special categories of personal data as referred to in Article 9 (1) of Regulation (EU) 2016/679 shall be permitted
by public and private bodies if
processing is necessary to exercise the rights derived from the right of social security and social protection and to meet the related obligations;
processing is necessary for the purposes of preventive medicine, for the assessment of the working capacity of the employee, medical diagnosis, the provision of health or social care or treatment or the management of health or social care systems and services or pursuant to the data subject’s contract with a health professional and if these data are processed by health professionals or other persons subject to the obligation of professional secrecy or under their supervision; or
processing is necessary for reasons of public interest in the area of public health, such as protecting against serious cross-border threats to health or ensuring high standards of quality and safety of health care and of medicinal products or medical devices; in addition to the measures referred to in subsection 2, in particular occupational and criminal law provisions to ensure professional secrecy shall be complied with;
by public bodies if
processing is urgently necessary for reasons of substantial public interest;
processing is necessary to prevent a substantial threat to public security;
processing is urgently necessary to prevent substantial harm to the common good or to safeguard substantial concerns of the common good; or
processing is necessary for urgent reasons of defence or to fulfil supra- or inter-governmental obligations of a public body of the Federation in the field of crisis management or conflict prevention or for humanitarian measures;
and as far as the interests of the controller in data processing in the cases of no. 2 outweigh the interests of the data subject.
In the cases of subsection 1, appropriate and specific measures shall be taken to safeguard the interests of the data subject. Taking into account the state of the art, the cost of implementation and the nature, scope, context and purposes of processing as well as the risks of varying likelihood and severity for rights and freedoms of natural persons posed by the processing, these measures may include in particular the following:
technical organizational measures to ensure that processing complies with Regulation (EU) 2016/679;
measures to ensure that it is subsequently possible to verify and establish whether and by whom personal data were input, altered or removed;
measures to increase awareness of staff involved in processing operations;
designation of a data protection officer;
restrictions on access to personal data within the controller and by processors;
the pseudonymizing of personal data;
the encryption of personal data;
measures to ensure the ability, confidentiality, integrity, availability and resilience of processing systems and services related to the processing of personal data, including the ability to rapidly restore availability and access in the event of a physical or technical incident;
a process for regularly testing, assessing and evaluating the effectiveness of technical and organizational measures for ensuring the security of the processing;
specific rules of procedure to ensure compliance with this Act and with Regulation (EU) 2016/679 in the event of transfer or processing for other purposes.
Frenzel in Paal/Pauly, Datenschutz-Grundverordnung, Art. 9 (German)
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